When Carlos Ghosn was the big cheese and CEO of the combined Nissan, Renault, Mitsubishi Alliance he had big plans for all three brands.
With his arrest and subsequent fallout those plans are gathering dust as the Alliance breaks, sales fall and costs skyrocket.
Never one to play down his significance, Ghosn gave the French press his version of events earlier this summer. “I find the results of Nissan and Renault pathetic,” he surmised. “The two companies are looking inwards. There is no longer any real mix of management between Renault and Nissan, but a distrustful distance.”
When he spoke, Ghosn was reflecting on the fact that Nissan’s and Renault’s share prices had fallen 55% and 70% respectively from when he was locked in a cell in November 2018 through to June 2020. In contrast, General Motors had had a 12% dip and Toyota 15%. There was the world crisis, and there was the Nissan and Renault crisis, and they were of very different magnitudes, he reasoned.
Of course, you may argue that he would say that, given his arrest, the scale of the accusations of wrongdoing and his subsequent flight to dodge what he perceived as a flawed Japanese justice system, but subsequent events have suggested he may have a point. Certainly, the teetering triumvirate’s problems show little signs of slowing. Nissan has recently warned it will lose £3.5 billion this financial year, cautioning it is experiencing its lowest sales in a decade, Renault lost a scarcely survivable £6.5bn in the first half of this year alone and Mitsubishi is predicting a £2.6bn loss and its worst sales for 15 years.
Now we learn that as part of the revised Alliance structure, Renault has been named the lead brand in Europe, with Nissan taking the lead in Japan, North America and China and Mitsubishi the focus for South-East Asia and Oceania.
With this Mitsubishi starts a gradual retreat from Europe.
No new models in Europe
Mitsubishi has halted new model launches in Europe as part of an overhaul of its global operations to cut costs, which is expected to mark the beginning of the brand’s withdrawal from the European market.
Under the ‘Small but Beautiful’ banner, the Japanese manufacturer plans to reduce its fixed costs by 20% over the next two years. It will shift to a business structure centred on Asia and “improve operating profit by downsizing low-profit businesses”.
The firm will focus its resources on the South-East Asian market, where it currently has a 6.4% market share, compared with just 1.0% in Europe and 0.9% in North America. Its operating profit in the region last year was 63.6 billion yen (£469.6 million), compared to just 12.8bn yen (£94.5m) across all other global markets.
A planned “freezing of the introduction of new products in Europe” means upcoming models such as the next-generation L200 pick-up truck and the best selling Outlander SUV are unlikely to be sold here.
Car Dealer Magazine reports that Mitsubishi UK boss Rob Lindley was surprised to hear the news, but that the Colt Car Company – sole distributor of the brand’s models in the country – will now “accelerate” talks it was already having with other manufacturers.
“We did not expect [Mitsubishi] to cease development of models for Europe completely and that was a shock,” Lindley told Car Dealer, “but we were talking to other brands that are not yet represented here in the UK yet.”
A Mitsubishi UK spokesman was unable to say for how long the European new model freeze will last but said that the situation is “evolving and changing rapidly”.
Mitsubishi plans to achieve “sustainable growth” from the end of 2022 by consolidating investment into core regions and products. Changes in its home market include shifting production of its Pajero SUV from Sakahogi to Okazaki, closing unproductive dealerships and promoting its sharing and subscription business.
The new model freeze means current models will not be replaced when they become non-compliant with EU emissions regulations, suggesting Mitsubishi will gradually withdraw from the European market.
It’s too early to say what the plans mean for Mitsubishi’s 114 UK dealerships but that they’re “still selling cars for the foreseeable future” and plan to continue to support customers with an ongoing aftersales parts and servicing offering.
The Outlander PHEV is by far the best selling Plug In in the UK. The current model provides around 30 miles of pure EV driving before any petrol is used. For many people this is just perfect for a daily drive.
The Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV is the best-selling plug-in hybrid SUV and the UK’s second favourite plug-in hybrid model overall, according to the latest registration figures.
More than 2,600 Outlander PHEVs have been registered since the start of the year, contributing a total of almost 52,000 on the road.
There are twice as many Outlander PHEVs on UK roads than any other plug-in hybrid model, according to Mitsubishi.
Learn more about the PHEV at Mitsubishi UK website.
New car sales fell in April to the lowest number since WWII.
Last April 160,000 cars were sold, this April 4,321 cars sold.
And the best selling car was the Tesla Model 3 with 658 new customers. The second best selling car was the all electric Jaguar iPace with 367 units sold and the Nissan LEAF 7th with 72 sales.
The Tesla and Jag EVs sold more that the rest of the top 10 with 1,025 sales compared to all the rest with 900.
Dismal sales for all companies – especially the high volume brands VW, Ford, Toyota with virtually zero cars sold.
See this graph of last three years month sales. Full data on SMMT website. April 2020 is so small that you can hardly see it.
While car sales sink van sales are holding up much better. In April Mercedes shifted 814 new Sprinters, the best selling van of the 2,588 sold.
Interestingly at number 7 in the top 10 list is the all electric Nissan NV200 with 131 units. So Nissan sold more electric Van than Cars during April.
Don’t expect May to be much better.
The Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV remained the UK’s best-selling plug-in hybrid vehicle with one in every four plug-in hybrid vehicles registered in August being a Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV.
Calendar year to date, sales of the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV total 4,428 units, which is broadly in line with last year with 4,521 units registered. This sales performance has been achieved in spite of the stupid withdrawal of the plug-in car grant in November 2018. – Note to Government, Plug-In are a real benefit in driving down fuel usage, increasing MPG and reducing CO2 emissions. Note to Sajid Javid please reinstate the Plug- In grant and increase the EV grant in the next budget.
The Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV continues to dominate the market with a commanding 25% share of the Plug-in hybrid vehicle sector with sales more than double than that of its nearest rival.
Rob Lindley, Managing Director, Mitsubishi Motors in the UK said,
The Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV has cemented its position as the nation’s favourite plug-in vehicle, one it has held consistently since the vehicles initial launch back in 2014.
“Our customers continue to enjoy the real-world benefits of plug-in technology, with the flexibility of a full-size family SUV and no compromises in term of boot or passenger space.”
The 2020 Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV is priced from £35,455 (OTR) and until September 26th customers can get an additional £2,000 trade-in allowance when they trade in their current car for a new Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV at their local, participating Mitsubishi dealership.
More about the Outlander PHEV
With 45,000 registered in the UK since 2014, the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV is the UK’s most popular plug-in vehicle.
Revised in 2019, it now has a real-world EV range of 28 miles and achieves 134mpg (WLTP).
A recent survey of Outlander PHEV customers reveals that half their average weekly mileage is driven in electric mode, with 68% charging at least once per day and 90% charging several times per week. 83% would recommend an Outlander PHEV to family and friends and 25% say they are considering a pure electric vehicle for the next vehicle, making it a true gateway vehicle towards an all-EV future and an important step on the road to zero.
An Outlander PHEV with a Type 1 charge port can be charged for any standard 13 AMP socket overnight or in a few hours at a Type 2 charge point and a Type 2 – Type 1 charging cable.
Porsche set to premiere the all Electric Taycan live on the net.
If you are interested in the all electric Porsche in just a few hours, you can watch the live World Premiere of the Porsche Taycan. The exciting unveiling of the first all-electric Porsche will be broadcast live today, 4 September, at 2pm (BST).
This live event will be taking place in China, Canada and Berlin simultaneously, hosted by Mark Webber and we invite you to watch via Porsche newsTV or Porsche YouTube.
INFINITI will unveil its new QX Inspiration concept at the 2019 North American International Auto Show this month, previewing the brand’s electrified future.
The new concept represents INFINITI’s plans for high-performance electrified vehicles, offering complete range confidence, while signalling a new era for INFINITI design enabled by new technology. Infused with Japanese DNA, a refreshed form language hints at the potency and character of the brand’s future electrified powertrains.
Infiniti is rather late to the EV game, considering what its rivals, like TESLA, Porsche, AUDI are doing and the fact that parent Nissan has been making the Leaf since 2010. Infinitis is Nissan’s upmarket brand, just as Lexus is to Toyota.
As Nissan’s luxury brand, Infiniti has yet to build a pure EV, instead selling rather bland hybrid vehicles like the Q50 Hybrid. However, it plans to electrify its entire lineup starting in 2021, and said that half its vehicles would feature either a hybrid or a pure electric drivetrain by 2025. Unfortunately for pure EV lovers, many of those vehicles will pack Nissan’s e-POWER hybrid drivetrain, which uses a petrol engine to charge the electric batteries, and has no plug-in option.
Infiniti has just unveiled the QX Inspiration concept rather than a production car, that it will show off in detail at the 2019 North American International Auto Show later in January. The vehicle design, teased last month, represents the future (and platform) for Infiniti’s electrified program.
Development of new electric vehicle platforms enables the formation of spacious, lounge-like interiors. In the case of the QX Inspiration concept, the cabin has been hand-crafted using traditional techniques and a choice of materials inspired by a subtle Japanese sensuality. The new interior technology follows the Japanese hospitality principle of ‘omotenashi’, creating a welcoming environment, while assisting drivers and connecting occupants to the world around them.
Karim Habib, Executive Design Director for INFINITI describes the QX Inspiration as the beginning of a new era for INFINITI, and an illustration of where the brand wants to go. New technology gives the opportunity to evolve INFINITI’s design philosophy – and the new vehicle communicates the ‘serene strength’ at our core.
We will learn more after the full release at the Detroit show.
The Sunday Times asks WHICH IS THE BEST ELECTRIC CAR IN 2018? AUDI E-TRON VS JAGUAR I-PACE VS PORSCHE TAYCAN VS TESLA MODEL X?
On the face a strange question as two of the cars, the Audi and the Porsche are not yet available and the I-Pace is so new that very few people have seen one.
It does lead with:
A new wave of battery-powered luxury models are arriving in Britain’s car showrooms, with the likes of Audi, Jaguar and Porsche joining Tesla in the battle to woo owners of posh cars who are contemplating ditching diesel or parting company with petrol.
California’s Tesla may have led the charge of the upmarket electric car, launching its Model S saloon in 2013, but Britain’s Jaguar has managed to get the head-start on its European rivals, beating them to the market with its recently launched I-Pace pure EV.
Audi will reveal the production version of its e-tron SUV at the end of August, which is likely to appeal to both Q5 and Q7 owners. And Porsche is in the race as it readies the Taycan, its first pure electric car that’s about the size of the Panamera.
For those looking at these EVs, the obvious question is how do the new luxury electric cars compare? Here, we review the specifications of the Audi e-tron, Jaguar I-Pace, Porsche Taycan and Tesla Model X, to help drivers decide which best meets their needs.
|Audi e-tron||Jaguar I-Pace||Porsche Taycan||Tesla Model X 75D|
|Range||248 miles (WLTP)||298 miles (WLTP)||310 miles (NEDC)||259 miles (NEDC)|
Arguably the greatest concern for any driver that’s not owned an electric car before is how far it will travel on a fully charged battery. Distances are improving from earlier, less powerful electric cars like the Nissan Leaf, which would struggle to better 100 miles on a charge, but there’s still the largely misplaced anxiety of running out of battery juice in between charging points when driving an electric-only car.
|Audi e-tron||Jaguar I-Pace||Porsche Taycan||Tesla Model X 75D|
|Max charge rate||150kW||100kW||350kW||120kW|
After range anxiety, the next headache for anyone new to electric cars is how long a battery takes to charge. It’s all good being able to travel 300 miles on a single charge, but if you forget or face a long journey it’s good to know how quickly a depleted battery can be replenished at a public charging point, or at work.
Depending on what you’re using to top up the batteries, the charging times will vary considerably. For example, when plugging the car into the regular mains household supply, Jaguar only reckons you’ll get 38 miles of range out of the I-Pace if you leave it charging overnight. That’s why most owners have a 7kW wallbox installed at home or at work, as it will give a full charge overnight, or in 13 hours.
Jaguar says that at a standard charging point at a service station its I-Pace should have 168 miles or so of range after an hour’s charge. Once 100kW-capable charging points are available in the UK, it should also be possible to top up the battery to 90% capacity within 45 minutes.
Tesla’s Model X 75D takes about 11 hours to charge at home with a 7kW wallbox, and 3.5 hours with a public 22kW rapid charger. Switch to a 120kW Supercharger and within 40 minutes it should have 80% charge.
Audi claims that the e-tron will offer 150kW DC charging capability. That means it should charge from empty to 80% in around half an hour, and reach full within 50 minutes, as and when such powerful charges become publicly available – something the company is working on in partnership with BMW, Mercedes, Ford and the rest of the Volkswagen Group, under the guise of the Ionity network. Charge at home, using an 11kW wallbox, and it will take around 8.5 hours for a complete fill.
Porsche has yet to provide comprehensive charging data for the Taycan, saying only that it has the ability to provide a range of 248 miles after 15 minutes. However, as with the Jaguar, the technology that would allow this isn’t yet available in the UK.
With its own Supercharger network Tesla wins the charging infrastructure game by a long way. Tesla operate 1,327 Supercharger Stations with 10,854 Superchargers. Each year, owners receive 400 kWh of free Supercharger credit, enough to drive about 1,000 miles. These credits cover the long distance driving needs of most owners, so road trips can be completely free. Customers who travel beyond the annual credit pay a small fee to Supercharge—only a fraction of the cost of fuel.
|Audi e-tron||Jaguar I-Pace||Porsche Taycan||Tesla Model X 75D|
|From||£60,000 (est)||£63,495||£70,000 (est)||£74,650|
Because the Audi and Porsche are not yet on sale, the final price for UK drivers is still to be announced. However, the companies have given guidance on the anticipated cost, with the Audi e-tron likely to start from £60,000 when it is revealed in showroom trim in September, and the Porsche Taycan expected to be around £70,000 – when it finally reaches showrooms early next year.
Rubbing shoulders with both is the Jaguar I-Pace, which costs from £63,495 and reaches £74,445 in top-spec, HSE trim. The Tesla Model X 75D costs from £74,650.
All four cars qualify for the government’s plug-in car grant for zero-emission vehicles, which is worth up to 35% of the price or a maximum of £4500, and would be deducted from the prices listed above.
Read full article at the Sunday Times website:
The Porsche Taycan is set to the brands first full EV, and now we know what it’s actually going to be called.
All the facts
Back in 2015, the Mission E was unveiled with the Taycan codename, but now Porsche has revealed it’ll be called the Taycan. The name change was announced on Porsche’s 70th birthday by Porsche’s CEO Oliver Blume, alongside news of a new Speedster concept. And if you’re interested, we’re told the Taycan name translates in a Eurasian dialect to ‘lively young horse.’
At the 2015 Frankfurt motor show and the announcement of the all-new Porsche Mission E, shown in concept car form (above). It looked like one of Stuttgart’s finest, but everything inside it seemed to be alien. Where was the flat-six engine? If Porsche had jumped on the EV bandwagon, surely the internal combustion engine’s days were numbered?
Three years later, we have a much more measured, balanced view of EVs, and they’re shifting relationship with ICE-powered cars. In 2018 everyone’s releasing an EV – or at least announcing an ambitious plan for electrification, and our roads are peppered with Nissan Leafs and a swelling number of Teslas. Now, the idea of an electric Porsche isn’t a shocking novelty, and it needs to be backed up with some serious specs, infrastructure and competitive performance.
What is Porsche Mission E?
The Porsche Taycan (formerly the Mission E) is an all-new supercar that’ll fit somewhere between the Panamera and 911, and will feature an all-electric powertrain. It has been spotted being benchmarked against Tesla Model S and Model X EVs.
‘With Mission E we are making a clear statement about the future of the brand,’ said Porsche board chairman Dr. Wolfgang Porsche, speaking in 2015. ‘Even in a greatly changing motoring world, Porsche will maintain its front-row position with this fascinating sports car.’
In the wake of the ongoing emissions scandal rocking Porsche’s parent company VW, electric drivetrain technology is being fast-tracked throughout the VW Audi empire.
How fast is the Porsche EV?
Porsche claims the Taycan will pass 62mph in ‘less than 3.5 seconds’, dashing past 124mph in just a dozen seconds. Top speed meanwhile will be ‘more than 155mph’. The dual-motor layout delivers four-wheel drive and the 911’s four-wheel steering features for agility that would surprise most four-seaters. The batteries are mounted as low as possible within the composite construction for a ground-hugging centre of gravity. There are also two recesses within the skateboard-like battery, for better rear occupant legroom.
In Stuttgart at the company’s annual earnings conference, Porsche let slip that the Tayxan would be powered by LG batteries from South Korea – but that the cells have been designed and built specifically for the Taycan, so they’re not appearing in any other EVs. Steiner added that longer term, Porsche would be pooling its resources within the VW Group to eventually produce its own batteries.
Is the Taycan a real Porsche?
Sort of. ‘The Porsche Mission has been developed in-house at Stuttgart from start to finish, but Porsche is working with its VW stablemate on a separate platform called the Premium Performance Electric or PPE,’ said Stefan Weckbach, head of BEV at Porsche. That’s BEV as in Battery Electric Vehicles, in case you were wondering. ‘E-mobility is a Herculean task, and that’s also true in monetary terms. Group-wide cooperation is therefore a huge plus for us.
‘We’re working very closely with our counterparts, in particular at Audi, on the use of joint modules for the e-vehicles we are currently planning. The brands are also working on the joint development of a platform for new BEV projects in the future.’ We should expect three SUV or saloon models from that in the future, enabled by the economies of scale sparked by working with sister brands. By teaming up, Audi and Porsche are jointly saving 30% in R&D costs.
Of course the Porsche Cayenne is based on the Audi Q7 and the Macan on the Audi Q5.
What are the Taycan specs?
Three years ago, the Mission E promised impressive specs, but Porsche realises it’s been chasing a moving target ever since the car was announced – and that won’t stop when the car is finally released in 2019. Power electronics and battery tech are moving at such a fast rate, Porsche is still unsure if it’ll be offering incremental upgrade packages to early customers.
Tesla is happy to offer performance improving software updates with startling frequency, whereas Nissan tends to save any Leaf updates for refreshed models.
However, with performance and speed being such an important part of the Mission E concept Porsche is considering how to factor in life-cycle improvements to the Taycan.
Porsche plan to use 800 volts with PSM ‘permanently excited synchronous machine’ – an electric motor with extremely high power density, high-efficiency and consistent performance over the entire range of speed and distance. Concept Study Mission E features two of them: one on each axle with a total of more than 440 kW (600 hp) to give a range of over 500 Km.
Or use a standard Type 2 charging cable.
Where does it fit?
Porsche is planning to offer its Taycan EV in three different power outputs and will price the fast four-door in a similar ballpark to the Cayenne and Panamera. This points to a launch price of around £75,000 in the UK when sales start in 2019.
Offering a choice of performance levels gives the Porsche EV a wider market appeal, different price points and an answer to the Tesla Model S, which also comes in 75D, 100D and P100D flavours. We understand the Taycan will be available with some very familiar-sounding badges, reflecting the performanceincrease.
- Carrera 300kW equivalent to 396bhp
- Carrera S 400kW equivalent to 529bhp
- Turbo 500kW equivalent to 661bhp
One constant question Porsche has to face right now is: ‘how do you make it feel like a Porsche?’ And it’s a reasonable thing to ask, especially when it comes to electric cars. Take the 911 GT3; it’s one of the most responsive cars on the road – thanks in part to its naturally aspirated flat-six – but how do you deliver that instant response and hit of acceleration in a marketplace where e-motors with tonnes of torque and linear power delivery come straight off the shelf?
The quick answer: Porsche says it’ll be going deeper into the response and power characteristics of EVs, and there’s more to it than just pure acceleration. For example, steering and braking feel are both something Porsche prides itself on, and the company expects them to be a good area of differentiation in its EV. No wooden brake feel here, say the engineers.
And unlike other cars such as the Tesla Roadster, which can only achieve its headline-grabbing figures twice before needing to cool down, Porsche wants its car to deliver the same level of performance at all times.
‘Porsche drivers won’t need to worry about throttling performance,’ said Weckbach. ‘The Mission E will offer reproducible performance and a top speed which can be maintained for long periods, he vows.
The Taycan will sound like an electric car, in the same way that the 911 GT3 sounds like a flat-six monster. That is, while the car’s acoustics may be tuned to sound as pleasant or aggressive as possible, there won’t be any synthetic BMW i8-style noise.
‘Porsche is unlikely to lower itself to gimmicks of this kind or use sound effects to mimic a bubbling eight-cylinder,’ explains Weckbach. ‘But we will give due consideration to sound as an emotional factor in the Taycan, using the design approach typical of Porsche and incorporating a clear reference to the technology.’
What’s more, Porsche believes there’s more to driving dynamics than the metallic roar of an ICE behind you, and that in the future, the sound of thousands of tiny explosions won’t be so associated with driving excitement anyway.
Porsche wants to ease Taycan owners into the world of electric charging, and it’s going to use a combination of hardware and software to do it.
For example, in a step above Tesla’s own Supercharger network, Michael says Porsche drivers will be able to easily reserve charging spots as part of a normal sat-nav-led journey.
‘Take the Turbo Charging Planner for our battery electric powertrains as another example,’ said Michael. ‘Quick-charge options are optimally matched to your route planning and charging pedestals are pre-reserved, meaning that you can gain that all-important advantage and lose as little time as possible. Added value of this kind helps to determine the essence of the brand.’ Unlike Tesla, which sees charging as a financial incentive to buy into its ecosystem, Porsche wants to use charging as an additional revenue stream.
Interestingly, Porsche isn’t too keen on rolling out its fastest charging technology to everyone’s homes, either. Instead, it’ll offer an extended range of wall chargers, with different models catering for different cars and use cases.
‘We’ll also be able to tailor charging output to customer needs. For example, 3.6 kW for a plug-in hybrid or 7.2 kW for drivers who want to go faster in their Porsche vehicle. For purely electric vehicles, the customer can choose between 11 kW and 22 kW.’
There is also talk of Inductive charging, just drive over a base plate and the car is re-charged automatically. For this to work the car and the plate need to be super close.
The new Taycan will be built in Porsche’s Zuffenhausen plant, alongside the 911 – but with space and time at a premium, the extra facilities needed for the Taycan are being built around the existing, working factory. A portion of the plant is currently closed whiles the lines are re arranged for the Taycan.
It’s an unprecedented move for the marque, and quick glance at the proposed layout essentially shows the new factory filling in any gaps around the site. The task to essentially retrofit more facilities has been so unusual, that Porsche has had to construct an 800m conveyor belt to take Taycans from the body shop to the paint hops. Around €700m is being invested in the site
For Porsche, building its first all-electric car is a huge learning curve in more ways than one. And it’ll be the same for customers, when they first get their hands on the Taycan at the end of the decade. This promises to be one of the most fascinating EVs yet on sale – and one aimed squarely at old-school ‘petrolheads’ keen to make a stepchange into the new electric era.
What’s it like?
Porsche brand ambassador Mark Webber loves it.
Learn more at the Porsche Mission E Micro site:
Nissan CEO Carlos Ghosn presides over the company has made more electric cars that anyone else so he should know a thing or two about the range that consumers expect from their car before having to plug them back in.
At a recent speech in Hong Kong he said that about 300 KM was fine.
The Nikkei Asian Review revealed that Carlos is focused on lowering price and not on extending range.
“We have seen that consumers do not talk anymore about range or autonomy as long as you guarantee more than 300km,”
said Ghosn, the chairman of the three carmakers, in a media session with Hong Kong reporters late Friday.
Ghosn said the companies only recently determined that 300km was the key milestone, as car owners on average drive just around 50km a day. “You could not have guessed this [result] through studies,” he said. “You had to have 500,000 [electric] cars on the ground to understand that consumers do not put autonomy on top of their concerns any more when you cross 300km.”
For the Chinese market in particular, price is now the key issue, Ghosn said. “When you look what are the electric Chinese cars that are selling, they are very, very affordable cars,” he said. “The price point of the Leaf today is not adequate for the Chinese market.”
The debate over how much range is enough has raged among electric car advocates and consumers ever since the first all-electric vehicles hit the streets. I remember speaking to consumers looking to purchase a Sparrow EV and if 50 miles was enough for their commute.
Now, most electric models have had ranges of about 80 – 110 miles, which will cover the daily driving of about 90 percent of the public, according to census and Department of Labor studies. Yet many car buyers still rejected those electrics from range anxiety: would there be enough charge left for incidental trips after work? They think they may have a sudden urge to drive to Aberdeen for some reason.
The New Leaf is good for over 200 miles and all the Tesla models offer well over 200 miles of range at motorway speed.
We expect battery costs to reduce 2-5% per year for the foreseeable future.